Magnus reigned from A.D. 1035 to 1047, when he died. During the last year of his reign his half-brother Harald Sigurdson was his co-regent.
The history of Magnus is treated in "Agrip.", ch. 28-32; in "Fagrskinna", ch. 119-146; in "Fornmannasogur", part vi., and in "Knytlinga Saga".
The skalds quoted in this saga are: Arnor the earls' skald (Arnor Jarlaskald), Sigvat, Thjodulf, Bjarne Gullbrarskald, Thorgeir Flek, Od Kikinaskald.
After Yule Magnus Olafson began his journey from the East from Novgorod to Ladoga, where he rigged out his ships as soon as the ice was loosened in spring (A.D. 1035). Arnor, the earls' skald, tells of this in the poem on Magnus: –
It is no loose report that he, Who will command on land and sea, In blood will make his foeman feel Olaf's sword Hneiter's sharp blue steel. This generous youth, who scatters gold, Norway's brave son, but ten years old, Is rigging ships in Russia's lake, His crown, with friend's support, to take.
In spring Magnus sailed from the East to Svithjod. So says Arnor: –
The young sword-stainer called a Thing, Where all his men should meet their king: Heroes who find the eagle food Before their lord in arms stood. And now the curved plank of the bow Cleaves the blue sea; the ocean-plough By grey winds driven across the main, Reaches Sigtuna's grassy plain.
Here it is related that when King Magnus and his fellow- travellers sailed from the East to Svithjod, they brought up at Sigtuna. Emund Olafson was then king in Svithjod. Queen Astrid, who had been married to King Olaf the Saint, was also there. She received very gladly and well her stepson King Magnus, and summoned immediately a numerous Thing of Swedes at a place called Hangtar. At the Thing Queen Astrid spoke these words: "Here is come to us a son of Olaf the Saint, called Magnus, who intends to make an expedition to Norway to seek his father's heritage. It is my great duty to give him aid towards this expedition; for he is my stepson, as is well known to all, both Swedes and Norwegians. Neither shall he want men or money, in so far as I can procure them or have influence, in order that his strength may be as great as possible; and all the men who will support this cause of his shall have my fullest friendship; and I would have it known that I intend myself to go with him on this attempt, that all may see I will spare nothing that is in my power to help him." She spoke long and cleverly in this strain; but when she had ended many replied thus: "The Swedes made no honourable progress in Norway when they followed King Olaf his father, and now no better success is to be expected, as this man is but in years of boyhood; and therefore we have little inclination for this expedition." Astrid replies, "All men who wish to be thought of true courage must not be deterred by such considerations. If any have lost connections at the side of King Olaf, or been themselves wounded, now is the time to show a man's heart and courage, and go to Norway to take vengeance." Astrid succeeded so far with words and encouragement that many men determined to go with her, and follow King Magnus to Norway. Sigvat the skald speaks of this:–
Now Astrtd, Olaf's widowed Queen, – She who so many a change had seen, – Took all the gifts of happier days, Jewels and rings, all she could raise, And at a Thing at Hangrar, where The Swedes were numerous, did declare What Olaf's son proposed to do, And brought her gifts – their pay – in view.
And with the Swedes no wiser plan To bring out every brave bold man, Could have been found, had Magnus been The son himself of the good queen. With help of Christ, she hoped to bring Magnus to be the land's sole king, As Harald was, who in his day Obtained o'er all the upper sway.
And glad are we so well she sped, – The people's friend is now their head; And good King Magnus always shows How much be to Queen Astrid owes. Such stepmothers as this good queen In truth are very rarely seen; And to this noble woman's praise The skald with joy his song will raise.
Thiodolf the skald also says in his song of Magnus: –
When thy brave ship left the land, The bending yard could scarce withstand The fury of the whistling gale, That split thy many-coloured sail; And many a stout ship, tempest-tost, Was in that howling storm lost That brought them safe to Sigtuna's shore, Far from the sound of ocean's roar.
King Magnus set out on his journey from Sigtuna with a great force, which he had gathered in Svithjod. They proceeded through Svithjod on foot to Helsingjaland. So says Arnor, the earl's skald: –
And many a dark-red Swedish shield Marched with thee from the Swedish field. The country people crowded in, To help Saint Olaf's son to win; And chosen men by thee were led, Men who have stained the wolf's tongue red. Each milk-white shield and polished spear Came to a splendid gathering there.
Magnus Olafson went from the East through Jamtaland over the keel-ridge of the country and came down upon the Throndhjem district, where all men welcomed the king with joy. But no sooner did the men of King Svein, the son of Alfifa, hear that King Magnus Olafson was come to the country, than they fled on all sides and concealed themselves, so that no opposition was made to King Magnus; for King Svein was in the south part of the country. So says Arnor, the earls' skald: –
He who the eagle's talons stains Rushed from the East on Throndhjem's plains; The terror of his plumed helm Drove his pale foemen from the realm. The lightning of thy eye so near, Great king! thy foemen could not bear, Scattered they fled – their only care If thou their wretched lives wilt spare.
Magnus Olafson advanced to the town (Nidaros), where he was joyfully received. He then summoned the people to the Eyra- thing (1); and when the bondes met at the Thing, Magnus was taken to be king over the whole land, as far as his father Olaf had possessed it. Then the king selected a court, and named lendermen, and placed bailiffs and officers in all domains and offices. Immediately after harvest King Magnus ordered a levy through all Throndhjem land, and he collected men readily; and thereafter he proceeded southwards along the coast.
King Svein Alfifason was staying in South Hordaland when he heard this news of war. He immediately sent out war-tokens to four different quarters, summoned the bondes to him, and made it known to all that they should join him with men and ships to defend the country. All the men who were in the neighbourhood of the king presented themselves; and the king formed a Thing, at which in a speech he set forth his business, and said he would advance against Magnus O1afson and have a battle with him, if the bondes would aid his cause. The king's speech was not very long, and was not received with much approbation by the bondes. Afterwards the Danish chiefs who were about the king made long and clever speeches; but the bondes then took up the word, and answered them; and although many said they would follow Svein, and fight on his side, some refused to do so bluntly, some were altogether silent, and some declared they would join King Magnus as soon as they had an opportunity. Then King Svein says, "Methinks very few of the bondes to whom we sent a message have appeared here; and of those who have come, and tell us to our face that they will join King Magnus as soon as they can, we shall have as little benefit as of those who say they will sit at home quietly. It is the same with those who say nothing at all. But as to those who promise to help us, there are not more than every other man; and that force will avail us little against King Magnus. It is my counsel, therefore, that we do not trust to these bondes; but let us rather go to the land where all the people are sure and true to us, and where we will obtain forces to conquer this country again." As soon as the king had made known this resolution all his men followed it, turned their ship's bows, and hoisted sail. King Svein sailed eastward along the land, and then set right over to Denmark without delay, and Hardaknut received his brother Svein very kindly. At their first meeting Hardaknut offered King Svein to divide the kingdom of Denmark with him, which offer King Svein accepted.
In autumn (A.D. 1035) King Magnus proceeded eastward to the end of the country, and was received as king throughout the whole land, and the country people were rejoiced at his arrival.6. DEATH OF KING CANUTE THE GREAT AND HIS SON SVEIN.
King Svein, Canute's son, went to Denmark, as before related, and took part in the government with his brother Hardaknut. In the same autumn King Canute the Great died in England, the 13th November, forty years old, and was buried at Winchester. He had been king of Denmark for twenty-seven years, and over Denmark and England together twenty-four years, and also over Norway for seven years. King Canute's son Harald was then made king in England. The same winter (A.D. 1036) King Svein, Alfifa's son, died in Denmark. Thiodolf the skald made these lines concerning King Magnus: –
Through Sweden's dirty roads the throng Followed the king in spearmen strong. Svein doth fly, in truth afraid, And partly by his men betrayed; Flying to Denmark o'er the sea, He leaves the land quite clear to thee.
Bjarne Gullbrarskald composed the following lines concerning Kalf Arnason: –
By thee the kings got each his own, – Magnus by thee got Norway's throne; And Svein in Denmark got a seat, When out of Norway he was beat. Kalf! It was you who showed the way To our young king, the battle-lover, – From Russia to his father's sway You showed the way, and brought him over.
King Magnus ruled over Norway this winter (A.D. 1036), and Hardaknut over Denmark.
The following spring (A.D. 1036) the kings on both sides ordered out a levy, and the news was that they would have a battle at the Gaut river; but when the two armies approached each other, the lendermen in the one army sent messengers to their connections and friends in the other; and it came to a proposal for a reconciliation between the two kings, especially as, from both kings being but young and childish, some powerful men, who had been chosen in each of the countries for that purpose, had the rule of the country on their account. It thus was brought about that there was a friendly meeting between the kings, and in this meeting a peace was proposed; and the peace was to be a brotherly union under oath to keep the peace towards each other to the end of their lives; and if one of them should die without leaving a son, the longest liver should succeed to the whole land and people. Twelve of the principal men in each kingdom swore to the kings that this treaty should be observed, so long as any one of them was in life. Then the kings separated, and each returned home to his kingdom; and the treaty was kept as long as both lived.
Queen Astrid, who had been married to King Olaf the Saint, came to Norway with King Magnus her stepson, as before related, and was held by him deservedly in great honour and esteem. Then came also Alfhild, King Magnus's mother, to the court, and the king received her with the greatest affection, and showed her great respect. But it went with Alfhild, as it does with many who come to power and honour, that pride keeps pace with promotion. She was ill pleased that Queen Astrid was treated with more respect, had a higher seat, and more attention. Alfhild wanted to have a seat next to the king, but Astrid called Alfhild her slave-woman, as indeed she had formerly been when Astrid was queen of Norway and King Olaf ruled the land, and therefore would on no account let her have a seat beside her, and they could not lodge in the same house.
Sigvat the skald had gone to Rome, where he was at the time of the battle of Stiklestad.
He was on his way back from the South when he heard tidings of King O1af's fall, which gave him great grief. He then sang these lines: –
One morning early on a hill, The misty town asleep and still, Wandering I thought upon the fields. Strewed o'er with broken mail and shields, Where our king fell, – our kind good king, Where now his happy youthful spring? My father too! – for Thord was then One of the good king's chosen men.
One day Sigvat went through a village, and heard a husband lamenting grievously over the loss of his wife, striking his breast, tearing his clothes, weeping bitterly, and saying he wanted to die; and Sigvat sang these lines: –
This poor man mourns a much-loved wife, Gladly would he be quit of life. Must love be paid for by our grief? The price seems great for joy so brief. But the brave man who knows no fear Drops for his king a silent tear, And feels, perhaps, his loss as deep As those who clamour when they weep.
Sigvat came home to Norway to the Throndhjem country, where he had a farm and children. He came from the South along the coast in a merchant vessel, and as they lay in Hillarsund they saw a great many ravens flying about. Then Sigvat said: –
I see here many a croaking raven Flying about the well-known haven: When Olaf's ship was floating here, They knew that food for them was near; When Olaf's ship lay here wind-bound, Oft screamed the erne o'er Hillar sound, Impatient for the expected prey, And wont to follow to the fray.
When Sigvat came north to the town of Throndhjem King Svein was there before him. He invited Sigvat to stay with him, as Sigvat had formerly been with his father King Canute the Great; but Sigvat said he would first go home to his farm. One day, as Sigvat was walking in the street, he saw the king's men at play, and he sang: –
One day before I passed this way, When the king's guards were at their play, Something there was – I need not tell – That made me pale, and feel unwell. Perhaps it was I thought, just then, How noble Olaf with his men, In former days, I oft have seen In manly games upon this green.
Sigvat then went to his farm; and as he heard that many men upbraided him with having deserted King Olaf, he made these verses: –
May Christ condemn me still to burn In quenchless fire, if I did turn, And leave King Olaf in his need, – My soul is free from such base deed. I was at Rome, as men know well Who saw me there, and who can tell That there in danger I was then: The truth I need not hide from men.
Sigvat was ill at ease in his home. One day he went out and sang: –
While Olaf lived, how smiled the land! Mountain and cliff, and pebbly strand. All Norway then, so fresh, so gay, On land or sea, where oft I lay. But now to me all seems so dready, All black and dull – of life I'm weary; Cheerless to-day, cheerless to-morrow – Here in the North we have great sorrow.
Early in winter Sigvat went westward over the ridge of the country to Jamtaland, and onwards to Helsingjaland, and came to Svithjod. He went immediately to Queen Astrid, and was with her a long time, and was a welcome guest. He was also with her brother King Emund, and received from him ten marks of proved silver, as is related in the song of Canute. Sigvat always inquired of the merchants who traded to Novgorod if they could tell him any news of Magnus Olafson. Sigvat composed these lines at that time: –
I ask the merchant oft who drives His trade to Russia, `How he thrives, Our noble prince? How lives he there? And still good news – his praise – I hear. To little birds, which wing their way Between the lands, I fain would say, How much we long our prince to see, They seem to hear a wish from me.
Immediately after Magnus Olafson came to Svithjod from Russia, Sigvat met him at Queen Astrid's house, and glad they all were at meeting. Sigvat then sang: –
Thou art come here, prince, young and bold! Thou art come home! With joy behold Thy land and people. From this hour I join myself to thy young power. I could not o'er to Russie hie, – Thy mother's guardian here was I. It was my punishment for giving Magnus his name, while scarcely living.
Afterwards Sigvat travelled with Queen Astrid, and followed Magnus to Norway. Sigvat sang thus: –
To the crowds streaming to the Thing, To see and hear Magnus their king, Loudly, young king, I'll speak my mind – `God to His people has been kind.' If He, to whom be all the praise, Give us a son in all his ways Like to his sire, no folk on earth Will bless so much a royal birth.
Now when Magnus became king of Norway Sigvat attended him, and was his dearest friend. Once it happened that Queen Astrid and Alfhild the king's mother had exchanged some sharp words with each other, and Sigvat said: –
Alfhild! though it was God's will To raise thee – yet remember still The queen-born Astrid should not be Kept out of due respect by thee.
King Magnus had a shrine made and mounted with gold and silver, and studded with jewels. This shrine was made so that in shape and size it was like a coffin. Under it was an arched way, and above was a raised roof, with a head and a roof-ridge. Behind were plaited hangings; and before were gratings with padlocks, which could be locked with a key. In this shrine King Magnus had the holy remains of King Olaf deposited, and many were the miracles there wrought. Of this Sigvat speaks: –
For him a golden shrine is made, For him whose heart was ne'er afraid Of mortal man – the holy king, Whom the Lord God to heaven did bring. Here many a man shall feel his way, Stone-blind, unconscious of the day, And at the shrine where Olaf lies Give songs of praise for opened eyes.
It was also appointed by law that King Olaf's holy day should be held sacred over all Norway, and that day has been kept ever afterwards as the greatest of Church days. Sigvat speaks of it: –
To Olaf, Magnus' father, raise, Within my house, the song of praise! With joy, yet grief, we'll keep the day Olaf to heaven was called away. Well may I keep within my breast A day for him in holy rest, – My upraised hands a golden ring On every branch (1) bear from that king.
Thorer Hund left the country immediately after King Olaf's fall. He went all the way to Jerusalem, and many people say he never came back. Thorer Hund had a son called Sigurd, father of Ranveig who was married to Joan, a son of Arne Arnason. Their children were Vidkun of Bjarkey, Sigurd Hund, Erling, and Jardthrud.
Harek of Thjotta sat at home on his farm, till King Magnus Olafson came to the country and was made king. Then Harek went south to Throndhjem to King Magnus. At that time Asmund Grankelson was in the king's house. When Harek came to Nidaros, and landed out of the ship, Asmund was standing with the king in the gallery outside the loft, and both the king and Asmund knew Harek when they saw him. "Now," says Asmund to the king, "I will pay Harek for my father's murder." He had in his hand a little thin hatchet. The king looked at him, and said, "Rather take this axe of mine." It was thick, and made like a club. "Thou must know, Asmund," added he, "that there are hard bones in the old fellow." Asmund took the axe, went down, and through the house, and when he came down to the cross-road Harek and his men coming up met him. Asmund struck Harek on the head, so that the axe penetrated to the brains; and that was Harek's death-wound. Asmund turned back directly to the king's house, and the whole edge of the axe was turned with the blow. Then said the king, "What would thy axe have done, for even this one, I think, is spoilt?" King Magnus afterwards gave him a fief and office in Halogaland, and many are the tales about the strife between Asmund and Harek's sons.
Kalf Arnason had at first, for some time, the greatest share of the government of the country under King Magnus; but afterwards there were people who reminded the king of the part Kalf had taken at Stiklestad, and then it became difficult for Kalf to give the king satisfaction in anything. Once it happened there were many men with the king bringing their affairs before him; and Thorgeir Flek from Sula in Veradal, of whom mention is made before in the history of King Olaf the Saint, came to him about some needful business. The king paid no attention to his words, but was listening to people who stood near him. Then Thorgeir said to the king, so loud that all who were around him could hear: –
Listen, my lord, to my plain word. I too was there, and had to bear A bloody head from Stiklestad: For I was then with Olaf's men. Listen to me: well did I see The men you're trusting the dead corpse thrusting Out of their way, as dead it lay; And striking o'er your father's gore.
There was instantly a great uproar, and some told Thorgeir to go out; but the king called him, and not only despatched his business to his satisfaction, but promised him favour and friendship.
Soon after this the king was at a feast at the farm of Haug in Veradel, and at the dinner-table Kalf Arnason sat upon one side of him, and Einar Tambaskelfer on the other. It was already come so far that the king took little notice of Kalf, but paid most attention to Einar. The king said to Einar, "Let us ride to-day to Stiklestad. I should like to see the memorials of the things which took place there." Einar replies, "I can tell thee nothing about it; but take thy foster-father Kalf with thee; he can give thee information about all that took place." When the tables were removed, the king made himself ready, and said to Kalf, "Thou must go with me to Stiklestad."
Kalf replied, "That is really not my duty."
Then the king stood up in a passion, and said, "Go thou shalt, Kalf!" and thereupon he went out.
Kalf put on his riding clothes in all haste, and said to his foot-boy, "Thou must ride directly to Eggja, and order my house- servants to ship all my property on board my ship before sunset."
King Magnus now rides to Stiklestad, and Kalf with him. They alighted from horseback, and went to the place where the battle had been. Then said the king to Kalf, "Where is the spot at which the king fell?"
Kalf stretched out his spear-shaft, and said, "There he lay when he fell."
The king: "And where wast thou, Kalf?"
Kalf: "Here where I am now standing."
The king turned red as blood in the face, and said, "Then thy axe could well have reached him."
Kalf replied, "My axe did not come near him;" and immediately went to his horse, sprang on horseback, and rode away with all his men; and the king rode back to Haug. Kalf did not stop until he got home in the evening to Eggja. There his ship lay ready at the shore side, and all his effects were on board, and the vessel manned with his house-servants. They set off immediately by night down the fjord, and afterwards proceeded day and night, when the wind suited. He sailed out into the West sea, and was there a long time plundering in Ireland, Scotland, and the Hebudes. Bjarne Gullbrarskald tells of this in the song about Kalf: –
Brother of Thorberg, who still stood Well with the king! in angry mood He is the first to break with thee, Who well deserves esteemed to be; He is the first who friendship broke, For envious men the falsehood spoke; And he will he the first to rue The breach of friendship 'twixt you two.
King Magnus added to his property Veggia, which Hrut had been owner of, and Kviststad, which had belonged to Thorgeir, and also Eggja, with all the goods which Kalf had left behind him; and thus he confiscated to the king's estate many great farms, which had belonged to those of the bonde-army who had fallen at Stiklestad. In like manner, he laid heavy fined upon many of those who made the greatest opposition to King Olaf. He drove some out of the country, took large sums of money from others, and had the cattle of others slaughtered for his use. Then the bondes began to murmur, and to say among themselves, "Will he go on in the same way as his father and other chiefs, whom we made an end of when their pride and lawless proceedings became insupportable?" This discontent spread widely through the country. The people of Sogn gathered men, and, it was said, were determined to give battle to King Magnus, if he came into the Fjord district. King Magnus was then in Hordaland, where he had remained a long time with a numerous retinue, and was now come to the resolution to proceed north to Sogn. When the king's friends observed this, twelve men had a meeting, and resolved to determine by casting lots which of them should inform the king of the discontent of the people; and it so happened that the lot fell upon Sigvat.
Sigvat accordingly composed a poem, which he called the "Free- speaking Song", which begins with saying the king had delayed too long to pacify the people, who were threatening to rise in tumult against him. He said: –
Here in the south, from Sogn is spread The news that strife draws to a head: The bondes will the king oppose – Kings and their folk should ne'er be foes. Let us take arms, and briskly go To battle, if it must be so; Defend our king – but still deplore His land plunged in such strife once more.
In this song are also these verses: –
Hakon. who at Fitiar died, – Hakon the Good, could not abide The viking rule. or robber train, And all men's love he thus did gain. The people since have still in mind The laws of Hakon, just and kind; And men will never see the day When Hakon's laws have passed away.
The bondes ask but what is fair The Olafs and the Earls, when there Where Magnus sits, confirmed to all Their lands and gear – to great and small, Bold Trygve's son, and Harald's heir, The Olafs, while on earth they were, Observed the laws themselves had made, And none was for his own afraid.
Let not thy counsellors stir thy wrath Against the man who speaks the truth; Thy honour lies in thy good sword, But still more in thy royal word; And, if the people do not lie, The new laws turn out not nigh So Just and mild, as the laws given At Ulfasund in face of heaven.
Dread king! who urges thee to break Thy pledged word, and back to take Thy promise given? Thou warrior bold; With thy own people word to hold, Thy promise fully to maintain, Is to thyself the greatest gain: The battle-storm raiser he Must by his own men trusted be.
Who urges thee, who seek'st renown, The bondes' cattle to cut down? No king before e'er took in hand Such viking-work in his own land. Such rapine men will not long bear, And the king's counsellors will but share In their ill-will: when once inflamed, The king himself for all is blamed.
Do cautious, with this news of treason Flying about – give them no reason. We hange the thief, but then we use Consideration of the excuse. I think, great king (who wilt rejoice Eagle and wolf with battle voice), It would be wise not to oppose Thy bondes, and make them thy foes.
A dangerous sign it is, I fear, That old grey-bearded men appear In corners whispering at the Thing, As if they had bad news to bring. The young sit still, – no laugh, or shout, – More looks than words passing shout; And groups of whispering heads are seen, On buttoned breasts, with lowering mien.
Among the udalmen, they say The king, if he could have his way, Would seize the bondes' udal land, And free-born men must this withstand. In truth the man whose udal field, By any doom that law can yield From him adjudged the king would take, Could the king's throne and power shake.
This verse is the last: –
A holy bond between us still Makes me wish speedy end to ill: The sluggard waits till afternoon, – At once great Magnus! grant our boon. Then we will serve with heart and hand, With thee we'll fight by sea or land: With Olaf's sword take Olaf's mind, And to thy bondes be more kind.
In this song the king was exhorted to observe the laws which his father had established. This exhortation had a good effect on the king, for many others held the same language to him. So at last the king consulted the most prudent men, who ordered all affairs according to law. Thereafter King Magnus had the law- book composed in writing which is still in use in Throndhjem district, and is called "The Grey Goose" (1). King Magnus afterwards became very popular, and was beloved by all the country people, and therefore he was called Magnus the Good.
The king of the English, King Harald, died (A.D. 1040) five years after his father King Canute, and was buried beside his father at Winchester. After his death his brother Hardaknut, the second son of the old King Canute, was king of England, and was thus king both of Denmark and England. He ruled these kingdoms two years, and then died of sickness in England, leaving no children. He was buried at Winchester beside his father. After his death Edward the Good, a son of the English king Ethelred (and Emma, a daughter of Richard earl of Rouen), was chosen king in England. King Edward the Good was, on his mother's side, a brother of Harald and Hardaknut, the sons of Canute the Great; and the daughter of Canute and Queen Emma was Gunhild, who was married to the Emperor Henry of Germany, who was called Henry the Mild. Gunhild had been three years in Germamy when she fell sick, and she died five years after the death of her father King Canute the Great.
When King Magnus Olafson heard of Hardaknut's death, he immediately sent people south to Denmark, with a message to the men who had bound themselves by oath to the peace and agreement which was made between King Magnus and Hardaknut, and reminded them of their pledge. He added, as a conclusion, that in summer (A.D. 1042.) he would come with his army to Denmark to take possession of his Danish dominions, in terms of the agreement, or to fall in the field with his army. So says Arnor, the earls' skald: –
Wise were the words, exceeding wise, Of him who stills the hungriest cries Of beasts of prey – the earl's lord; And soon fulfilled will be his word: `With his good sword he'll Denmark gain, Or fall upon a bloody plain; And rather than give up his cause, Will leave his corpse to raven's claws.'
Thereafter King Magnus gathered together a great army, and summoned to him all lendermen and powerful bondes, and collected war-ships. When the army was assembled it was very handsome, and well fitted out. He had seventy large vessels when he sailed from Norway. So says Thiodolf the skald: –
Brave king! the terror of the foe, With thee will many a long-ship go. Full seventy sail are gathered here, Eastward with their great king to steer. And southward now the bright keel glides; O'er the white waves the Bison rides. Sails swell, yards crack, the highest mast O'er the wide sea scarce seen at last.
Here it related that King Magnus had the great Bison, which his father King Olaf had built. It had more than thirty banks of rowers; and forward on the bow was a great buffalo head, and aft on the stern-post was its tail. Both the head and the tail, and both sides of the ship, were gilded over. Of this speaks Arnor, the earls' skald: –
The white foam lashing o'er the deck Oft made the glided head to shake; The helm down, the vessel's heel Oft showed her stem's bright-glacing steel. Around Stavanger-point careering, Through the wild sea's white flames steering, Tackle loud singing to the strain, The storm-horse flies to Denmark's plain.
King Magnus set out to sea from Agder, and sailed over to Jutland. So says Arnor: –
I can relate how through the gale The gallant Bison carried sail. With her lee gunwale in the wave, The king on board, Magnus the brave! The iron-clad Thingmen's chief to see On Jutland's coast right glad were we, – Right glad our men to see a king Who in the fight his sword could swing.
When King Magnus came to Denmark he was joyfully received. He appointed a Thing without delay, to which he summoned the people of the country, and desired they would take him as king, according to the agreement which had been entered into. As the highest of the chiefs of the country were bound by oath to King Magnus, and were desirous of keeping their word and oath, they endeavoured zealously to promote the cause with the people. It contributed also that King Canute the Great, and all his descendants, were dead; and a third assistance was, that his father King Olaf's sanctity and miracles were become celebrated in all countries.
King Magnus afterwards ordered the people to be summoned to Viborg to a Thing. Both in older and later times, the Danes elected their kings at the Viborg Thing. At this Thing the Danes chose Magnus Olafson to be king of all the Danish dorninions. King Magnus remained long in Denmark during the summer (A.D. 1042); and wherever he came the people received him joyfully, and obeyed him willingly. He divided the country into baronies and districts, and gave fiefs to men of power in the land. Late in autumn he returned with his fleet to Norway, but lay for some time at the Gaut river.
There was a man, by name Svein, a son of Earl Ulf, and grandson of Thorgils Sprakaleg. Svein's mother was Astrid, a daughter of King Svein Forkbeard. She was a sister of Canute the Great by the father's side, and of the Swedish King Olaf Eirikson by the mother's side; for her mother was Queen Sigrid the Haughty, a daughter of Skoglar Toste. Svein Ulfson had been a long time living with his relation the Swedish king, ever since King Canute had ordered his father Ulf to be killed, as is related in the saga of old King Canute, that he had his brother-in-law, Earl Ulf, murdered in Roskilde; and on which account Svein had not since been in Denmark. Svein Ulfson was one of the handsomest men that could be seen; he was very stout and strong, and very expert in all exercises, and a well-spoken man withal. Every one who knew him said he had every quality which became a good chief. Svein Ulfson waited upon King Magnus while he lay in the Gaut river, as before mentioned, and the king received him kindly, as he was by many advised to do; for Svein was a particularly popular man. He could also speak for himself to the king well and cleverly; so that it came at lasf to Svein's entering into King Magnus's service, and becoming his man. They often talked together afterwards in private concerning many affairs.
One day, as King Magnus sat in his high-seat and many people were around him, Svein Ulfson sat upon a footstool before the king. The king then made a speech: "Be it known to you, chiefs, and the people in general, that I have taken the following resolution. Here is a distinguished man, both for family and for his own merits, Svein Ulfson, who has entered into my service, and given me promise of fidelity. Now, as ye know, the Danes have this summer become my men, so that when I am absent from the country it is without a head; and it is not unknown to you how it is ravaged by the people of Vindland, Kurland, and others from the Baltic, as well as by Saxons. Therefore I promised them a chief who could defend and rule their land; and I know no man better fitted, in all respects, for this than Svein Ulfson, who is of birth to be chief of the country. I will therefore make him my earl, and give him the government of my Danish dominions while I am in Norway; just as King Canute the Great set his father, Earl Ulf, over Denmark while he was in England."
Then Einar Tambaskelfer said, "Too great an earl – too great an earl, my foster-son!"
The king replied in a passion, "Ye have a poor opinion of my judgment, I think. Some consider that ye are too great earls, and others that ye are fit for nothing."
Then the king stood up, took a sword, and girt it on the earl's loins, and took a shield and fastened it on his shoulders, put a helmet upon his head, and gave him the title of earl, with the same fiefs in Denmark which his father Earl Ulf had formerly held. Afterwards a shrine was brought forth containing holy relics, and Svein laid his hand hereon, and swore the oath of fidelity to King Magnus; upon which the king led the earl to the highseat by his side. So says Thiodolf: –
Twas at the Gaut river's shore, With hand on shrine Svein Ulfson swore. King Magnus first said o'er the oath, With which Svein Ulfson pledged his troth. The vows by Svein solemnly given, On holy bones of saints in heaven, To Magnus seemed both fair and fast; He found they were too fair to last.
Earl Svein went thereafter to Denmark, and the whole nation received him well. He established a court about him, and soon became a great man. In winter (A.D. 1043), he went much about the country, and made friends among the powerful chiefs; and, indeed, he was beloved by all the people of the land.
King Magnus proceeded northward to Norway with his fleet, and wintered there; but when the spring set in (A.D. 1048) he gathered a large force, with which he sailed south to Demnark, having heard the news from Vindland that the Vindland people in Jomsborg had withdrawn from their submission to him. The Danish kings had formerly had a very large earldom there, and they first founded Jomsborg; and now the place was become a very strong fortress. When King Magnus heard of this, he ordered a large fleet and army to be levied in Denmark, and sailed in summer to Vindland with all his forces, which made a very large army altogether. Arnor, the earls' skald, tells of it thus: –
Now in this strophe, royal youth! I tell no more than the plain truth. Thy armed outfit from the strand Left many a keel-trace on the sand, And never did a king before SO many ships to any shore Lead on, as thou to Vindland's isle: The Vindland men in fright recoil.
Now when King Magnus came to Vindland he attacked Jomsborg, and soon took the fortress, killing' many people, burning and destroying both in the town and in the courttry all around, and making the greatest havoc. So says Arnor, the earl's skald: –
The robbers, hemmed 'twixt death and fire, Knew not how to escape thy ire; O'er Jomsborg castle's highest towers Thy wrath the whirlwind-fire pours. The heathen on his false gods calls, And trembles even in their halls; And by the light from its own flame The king this viking-hold o'ercame.
Many people in Vindland submitted to King Magnus, but many more got out of the way and fled. King Magnus returned to Denmark, and prepared to take his winter abode there, and sent away the Danish, and also a great many of the Norwegian people he had brought with him.
The same winter (A.D. 1043), in which Svein Ulfson was raised to the government of the whole Danish dominions, and had made friends of a great number of the principal chiefs in Denmark, and obtained the affections of the people, he assumed by the advice of many of the chiefs the title of king. But when in the spring thereafter he heard that King Magnus had come from the north with a great army, Svein went over to Scania, from thence up to Gautland, and so on to Svithjod to his relation, King Emund, where he remained all summer, and sent spies out to Denmark, to inquire about the king's proceedings and the number of his men. Now when Svein heard that King Magnus had let a great part of his army go away, and also that he was south in Jutland, he rode from Svithjod with a great body of peopie which the Swedish king had given him. When Svein came to Scania the people of that country received him well, treated him as their king, and men joined him in crowds. He then went on to Seeland, where he was also well received, and the whole country joined him. He then went to Fyen, and laid all the islands under his power; and as the people also joined him, he collected a great army and many ships of war.
King Magnus heard this news, and at the same time that the people of Vindland had a large force on foot. He summoned people therefore to come to him, and drew together a great army in Jutland. Otto, also, the Duke of Brunsvik, who had married Ulfhild, King Olaf the Saint's daughter, and the sister of King Magnus, came to him with a great troop. The Danish chiefs pressed King Magnus to advance against the Vindland army, and not allow pagans to march over and lay waste the country; so it was resolved that the king with his army should proceed south to Heidaby. While King Magnus lay at Skotborg river, on Hlyrskog Heath, he got intelligence concerning the Vindland army, and that it was so numerous it could not be counted; whereas King Magnus had so few, that there seemed no chance for him but to fly. The king, however, determined on fighting, if there was any possibility of gaining the victory; but the most dissuaded him from venturing on an engagement, and all, as one man, said that the Vindland people had undoubtedly a prodigious force. Duke Otto, however, pressed much to go to battle. Then the king ordered the whole army to be gathered by the war trumpets into battle array, and ordered all the men to arm, and to lie down for the night under their shields; for he was told the enemy's army had come to the neighbourhood. The king was very thoughtful; for he was vexed that he should be obliged to fly, which fate he had never experienced before. He slept but little all night, and chanted his prayers.
The following day was Michaelmas eve. Towards dawn the king slumbered, and dreamt that his father, King Olaf the Saint, appeared to him, and said, "Art thou so melancholy and afraid, because the Vindland people come against thee with a great army? Be not afraid of heathens, although they be many; for I shall be with thee in the battle. Prepare, therefore, to give battle to the Vindlanders, when thou hearest my trumpet." When the king awoke he told his dream to his men, and the day was then dawning. At that moment all the people heard a ringing of bells in the air; and those among King Magnus's men who had been in Nidaros thought that it was the ringing of the bell called Glod, which King Olaf had presented to the church of Saint Clement in the town of Nidaros.
Then King Magnus stood up, and ordered the war trumpets to sound, and at that moment the Vindland army advanced from the south across the river against him; on which the whole of the king's army stood up, and advanced against the heathens. King Magnus threw off from him his coat of ring-mail, and had a red silk shirt outside over his clothes, and had in his hands the battle- axe called Hel (1), which had belonged to King Olaf. King Magnus ran on before all his men to the enemy's army, and instantly hewed down with both hands every man who came against him. So says Arnor, the earls' skald: –
His armour on the ground he flung His broad axe round his head he swung; And Norway's king strode on in might, Through ringing swords, to the wild fight. His broad axe Hel with both hands wielding, Shields, helms, and skulls before it yielding, He seemed with Fate the world to share, And life or death to deal out there.
This battle was not very long; for the king's men were very fiery, and where they came the Vindland men fell as thick as tangles heaped up by the waves on the strand. They who stood behind betook themselves to flight, and were hewed down like cattle at a slaughter. The king himself drove the fugitives eastward over the heath, and people fell all over the moor. So says Thiodolf: –
And foremost he pursued, And the flying foe down hewed; An eagle's feast each stroke, As the Vindland helms he broke. He drove them o'er the hearth, And they fly from bloody death; But the moor, a mile or more, With the dead was studded o'er.
It is a common saying, that there never was so great a slaughter of men in the northern lands, since the time of Christianity, as took place among the Vindland people on Hlyrskog's Heath. On the other side, not many of King Magnus's people were killed, although many were wounded. After the battle the king ordered the wounds of his men to be bound; but there were not so many doctors in the army as were necessary, so the king himself went round, and felt the hands of those he thought best suited for the business; and when he had thus stroked their palms, he named twelve men, who, he thought, had the softest hands, and told them to bind the wounds of the people; and although none of them had ever tried it before, they all became afterwards the best of doctors. There were two Iceland men among them; the one was Thorkil, a son of Geire, from Lyngar; the other was Atle, father of Bard Svarte of Selardal, from whom many good doctors are descended. After this battle, the report of the miracle which King Olaf the Saint had worked was spread widely through the country; and it was the common saying of the people, that no man could venture to fight against King Magnus Olafson, for his father Saint Olaf stood so near to him that his enemies, on that account. never could do him harm.
King Magnus immediately turned round with his army against Svein, whom he called his earl, although the Danes called him their king; and he collected ships, and a great force, and on both sides a great strength was assembled. In Svein's army were many chiefs from Scania, Halland, Seeland, and Fyen; while King Magnus, on the other hand, had mostly Norway and Jutland men, and with that war-force he hastened to meet Svein. They met at Re, near Vestland; and there was a great battle, which ended in King Magnus gaining the victory, and Svein taking flight. After losing many people, Svein fled back to Scania, and from thence to Gautland, which was a safe refuge if he needed it, and stood open to him. King Magnus returned to Jutland, where he remained all winter (A.D. 1044) with many people, and had a guard to watch his ships. Arnor, the earls' skald, speaks of this: –
At Re our battle-loving lord In bloody meeting stained his sword, – At Re upon the western shore, In Vestland warrior's blood once more.
Svein Ulfson went directly to his ships as soon as he heard that King Magnus had left his fleet. He drew to him all the men he could, and went round in winter among the islands, Seeland, Fyen, and others. Towards Yule he sailed to Jutland, and went into Limfjord, where many people submitted to him. He imposed scat upon some, but some joined King Magnus. Now when King Magnus heard what Svein was doing, he betook himself to his ships with all the Northmen then in Denmark, and a part of the Danish troops, and steered south along the land. Svein was then in Aros with a great force; and when he heard of King Magnus he laid his vessels without the town, and prepared for battle. When King Magnus heard for certain where Svein was, and that the distance between them was but short, he held a House-thing, and addressed his people thus: "It is reported to me that the earl and his fleet are lying not far from us, and that he has many people. Now I would let you know that I intend to go out against the earl and fight for it, although, we have fewer people. We will, as formerly, put our trust in God, and Saint Olaf, my father, who has given us victory sometimes when we fought, even though we had fewer men than the enemy. Now I would have you get ready to seek out the enemy, and give battle the moment we find him by rowing all to attack, and being all ready for battle." Thereupon the men put on their weapons, each man making himself and his place ready; and then they stretched themselves to their oars. When they saw the earl's ships they rowed towards them, and made ready to attack. When Svein's men saw the forces they armed themselves, bound their ships together, and then began one of the sharpest of battles. So says Thiodolf, the skald: –
Shield against shield, the earl and king Made shields and swords together ring. The gold-decked heroes made a play Which Hild's iron-shirt men say They never saw before or since On battle-deck; the brave might wince, As spear and arrow whistling flew, Point blank, death-bringing, quick and true.
They fought at the bows, so that the men only on the bows could strike; the men on the forecastle thrust with spears: and all who were farther off shot with light spears or javelins, or war- arrows. Some fought with stones or short stakes; and those who were aft of the mast shot with the bow. So Says Thiodolf: –
Steel-pointed spear, and sharpened stake, Made the broad shield on arm shake: The eagle, hovering in the air, Screamed o'er the prey preparing there. And stones and arrows quickly flew, And many a warrior bold they slew. The bowman never twanged his bow And drew his shaft so oft as now; And Throndhjem's bowmen on that day Were not the first tired of this play: Arrows and darts so quickly fly, You could not follow with the eye.
Here it appears how hot the battle was with casting weapons. King Magnus stood in the beginning of the battle within a shield- rampart; but as it appeared to him that matters were going on too slowly, he leaped over the shields, and rushed forward in the ship, encouraging his men with a loud cheer, and springing to the bows, where the battle was going on hand to hand. When his men saw this they urged each other on with mutual cheering, and there was one great hurrah through all the ships. So says Thiodolf: –
`On with our ships! on to the foe!' Cry Magnus' men – on, on they go. Spears against shields in fury rattle, – Was never seen so fierce a battle.
And now the battle was exceedingly sharp; and in the assault Svein's ship was cleared of all her forecastle men, upon and on both sides of the forecastle. Then Magnus boarded Svein's ship, followed by his men; and one after the other came up, and made so stout an assault that Svein's men gave way, and King Magnus first cleared that ship, and then the rest, one after the other. Svein fled, with a great part of his people; but many fell, and many got life and peace. Thiodolf tells of this: –
Brave Magnus, from the stern springing On to the stem, where swords were ringing From his sea-raven's beak of gold Deals death around – the brave! the bold! The earl's housemen now begin To shrink and fall: their ranks grow thin – The king's luck thrives – their decks are cleared, Of fighting men no more appeared. The earl's ships are driven to flight, Before the king would stop the fight: The gold-distributor first then Gave quarters to the vanquished men.
This battle was fought on the last Sunday before Yule. So says Thiodolf: –
'Twas on a Sunday morning bright, Fell out this great and bloody fight, When men were arming, fighting, dying, Or on the red decks wounded lying. And many a mabn, foredoomed to die, To save his life o'erboard did fly, But sank; for swimming could not save, And dead men rolled in every wave.
Magnus took seven ships from Svein's people. So says Thiodolf: –
Thick Olaf's son seven vessels cleared, And with his fleet the prizes steered. The Norway girls will not be sad To hear such news – each from her lad.
He also sings: –
The captured men will grieve the most Svein and their comrades to have lost; For it went ill with those who fled, Their wounded had no easy bed. A heavy storm that very night O'ertook them flying from the fight; And skulls and bones are tumbling round, Under the sea, on sandy ground.
Svein fled immediately by night to Seeland, with the men who had escaped and were inclined to follow him; but King Magnus brought his ships to the shore, and sent his men up the country in the night-time, and early in the morning they came flown to the strand with a great booty in cattle. Thiodolf tells about it: –
But yesterday with heavy stones We crushed their skulls, and broke their bones, And thinned their ranks; and now to-day Up through their land we've ta'en our way, And driven their cattle to the shore, And filled out ships with food in store. To save his land from our quick swords, Svein will need something more than words.
King Magnus sailed with his fleet from the south after Svein to Seeland; but as soon as the king came there Svein fled up the country with his men, and Magnus followed them, and pursued the fugitives, killing all that were laid hold of. So says Thiodolf: –
The Seeland girl asks with fear, `Whose blood-bespattered shield and spear – The earl's or king's – up from the shore Moved on with many a warrior more?' We scoured through all their muddy lanes, Woodlands, and fields, and miry plains. Their hasty footmarks in the clay Showed that to Ringsted led their way.
Spattered with mud from heel to head Our gallant lord his true men led. Will Lund's earl halt his hasty flight, And try on land another fight? His banner yesterday was seen, The sand-bills and green trees between, Through moss and mire to the strand, In arrow flight, leaving the land.
Then Svein fled over to Fyen Island, and King Magnus carried fire and sword through Seeland, and burnt all round, because their men had joined Svein's troop in harvest. So says Thiodolf: –
As Svein in winter had destroyed The royal house, the king employed No little force to guard the land, And the earl's forays to withstand. An armed band one morn he found, And so beset them round and round, That Canute's nephew quickly fled, Or he would have been captive led.
Our Throndhjem king in his just ire Laid waste the land with sword and fire, Burst every house, and over all Struck terror into great and small. To the earl's friends he well repaid Their deadly hate – such wild work made On them and theirs, that from his fury, Flying for life, away they hurry.
As soon as King Magnus heard that Svein with his troops had gone across to Fyen, he sailed after them; and when Svein heard this news he went on board ship and sailed to Scania, and from thence to Gautland, and at last to the Swedish King. King Magnus landed in Fyen, and plundered and burned over all; and all of Svein's men who came there fled far enough. Thiodolf speaks of it thus: –
Fiona isle, once green and fair, Lies black and reeking through the air: The red fog rises, thick and hot, From burning farm and smouldering cot. The gaping thralls in terror gaze On the broad upward-spiring blaze, From thatched roofs and oak-built walls, Their murdered masters' stately halls.
Svein's men, my girl, will not forge That thrice they have the Norsemen met, By sea, by land, with steel, with fire, Thrice have they felt the Norse king's ire. Fiona's maids are slim and fair, The lovely prizes, lads, we'll share: Some stand to arms in rank and row, Some seize, bring off, and fend with blow.
After this the people of Denmark submitted to King Magnus, and during the rest of the winter, there was peace. King Magnus then appointed some of his men to govern Denmark; and when spring was advanced he sailed northwards with his fleet to Norway, where he remained a great part of the summer.
Now, when Svein heard that King Magnus had gone to Norway he rode straight down, and had many people out of Svithjod with him. The people of Scania received him well, and he again collected an army, with which he first crossed over into Seeland and seized upon it and Fyen, and all the other isles. When King Magnus heard of this he gathered together men and ships, and sailed to Denmark; and as soon as he knew where Svein was lying with his ships King Magnus sailed to meet him. They met at a place called Helganes, and the battle began about the fall of day. King Magnus had fewer men, but larger and better equipt vessels. So says Arnor, the earls' skald: –
At Helganes – so goes the tale – The brave wolf-feeder, under sail, Made many an ocean-elk (1) his prey, Seized many a ship ere break of day. When twilight fell he urged the fight, Close combat – man to man all night; Through a long harvest night's dark hours, Down poured the battle's iron showers.
The battle was very hot, and as night advanced the fall of men was great. King Magnus, during the whole night, threw hand- spears. Thiodolf speaks of this: –
And there at Helganes sunk down, Sore wounded, men of great renown; And Svein's retainers lost all heart, Ducking before the flying dart. The Norsemen's king let fly his spears, His death-wounds adding to their fears; For each spear-blade was wet all o'er, Up to the shaft in their life-gore.
To make a short tale, King Magnus won the victory in this battle, and Svein fled. His ship was cleared of men from stem to stern; and it went so on board many others of his ships. So says Thiodolf: –
Earl Svein fled from the empty deck, His lonely ship an unmann'd wreck; Magnus the Good, the people's friend, Pressed to the death on the false Svein. Hneiter (2), the sword his father bore, Was edge and point, stained red with gore; Swords sprinkle blood o'er armour bright, When kings for land and power fight.
And Arnor says :-
The cutters of Bjorn's own brother Soon changed their owner for another; The king took them and all their gear; The crews, however, got off clear.
A great number of Svein's men fell, and King Magnus and his men had a vast booty to divide. So says Thiodolf: –
Where the Norsemen the Danish slew, A Gautland shield and breast-plate true Fell to my share of spoil by lot; And something more i' the south I got: (There all the summer swords were ringing) A helm, gay arms, and gear worth bringing, Home to my quiet lovely one I sent – with news how we had won.
Svein fled up to Scania with all the men who escaped with him; and King Magnus and his people drove the fugitives up through the country without meeting any opposition either from Svein's men or the bondes. So says Thiodolf: –
Olaf's brave son then gave command, All his ships' crews should quickly land: King Magnus, marching at their head, A noble band of warriors led. A foray through the land he makes; Denmark in every quarter shakes. Up hill and down the horses scour, Carrying the Danes from Norsemen's power.
King Magnus drove with fire and sword through the land. So says Thiodolf: –
And now the Norsemen storm along, Following their banner in a throng: King Magnus' banner flames on high, A star to guide our roaming by. To Lund, o'er Scania's peaceful field, My shoulder bore my useless shield; A fairer land, a better road, As friend or foe, I never trod.
They began to burn the habitations all around, and the people fled on every side. So says Thiodolf: –
Our ice-cold iron in great store, Our arms, beside the king we bore: The Scanian rogues fly at the view Of men and steel all sharp and true. Their timbered houses flame on high, Red flashing over half the sky; The blazing town flings forth its light, Lighting the cowards on their flight.
And he also sang: –
The king o'er all the Danish land Roams, with his fire-bringing band: The house, the hut, the farm, the town, All where men dwelt is burned down. O'er Denmark's plains and corn-fields, Meadows and moors, are seen our shields: Victorious over all, we chase Svein's wounded men from place to place.
Across Fiona's moor again The paths late trodden by our men We tread once more, until quite near, Through morning mist, the foes appear. Then up our numerous banners flare In the cold early morning air; And they from Magnus' power who fly Cannot this quick war-work deny.
Then Svein fled eastwards along Scania, and King Magnus returned to his ships, and steered eastwards also along the Scanian coast, having got ready with the greatest haste to sail. Thiodolf sings thus about it: –
No drink but the salt sea On board our ships had we, When, following our king, On board our ships we spring. Hard work on the salt sea, Off Scania's coast, had we; But we laboured for the king, To his foemen death to bring.
Svein fled to Gautland, and then sought refuge with the Swedish king, with whom he remained all winter (A.D. 1046), and was treated with great respect.
When King Magnus had subdued Scania he turned about, and first went to Falster, where he landed, plundered, and killed many people who had before submitted to Svein. Arnor speaks of this: –
A bloody vengeance for their guile King Magnus takes on Falster Isle; The treacherous Danes his fury feel, And fall before his purpled steel. The battle-field is covered o'er, With eagle's prey from shore to shore; And the king's courtmen were the first To quench with blood the raven's thirst.
Thereafter Magnus with his fleet proceeded to the isle of Fyen, went on land, plundered, and made great devastation. So says Arnor, the earls' skald: –
To fair Fiona's grassy shore His banner now again he bore: He who the mail-shirt's linked chains Severs, and all its lustre stains, – He will be long remembered there, The warrior in his twentieth year, Whom their black ravens from afar Saluted as he went to war.
King Magnus remained in Denmark all that winter (A.D. 1046), and sat in peace. He had held many battles, and had gained the victory in all. So says Od Kikinaskald: –
'Fore Michaelmas was struck the blow, That laid the Vindland vikings low; And people learned with joy to hear The clang of arms, and leaders' cheer. Short before Yule fell out the day, Southward of Aros, where the fray, Though not enough the foe to quell, Was of the bloodiest men can tell.
And Arnor says: –
Olaf's avenger who can sing? The skald cannot o'ertake the king, Who makes the war-bird daily drain The corpse-blood of his foemen slain. Four battles won within a year, – Breaker of shields! with swords and spear, And hand to hand, exalt thy fame Above the kings of greatest name.
King Magnus had three battles with Svein Ulfson. So says Thiodolf: –
To our brave Throndhjem sovereign's praise The skald may all his skaldcraft raise; For fortune, and for daring deed, His song will not the truth exceed. After three battles to regain What was his own, unjustly ta'en, Unjustly kept, and dues denied, He levied dues in red-blood dyed.
While King Magnus the Good, a son of King Olaf the Saint, ruled over Norway, as before related, the Earl Ragnvald Brusason lived with him. Earl Thorfin Sigurdson, the uncle of Ragnvald, ruled then over Orkney. King Magnus sent Ragnvald west to Orkney, and ordered that Thorfin should let him have his father's heritage. Thorfin let Ragnvald have a third part of the land along with him; for so had Erase, the father of Ragnvald, had it at his dying day. Earl Thorfin was married to Ingebjorg, the earl- mother, who was a daughter of Fin Arnason. Earl Ragnvald thought he should have two-thirds of the land, as Olaf the Saint had promised to his father Bruse, and as Bruse had enjoyed as long as Olaf lived. This was the origin of a great strife between these relations, concerning which we have a long saga. They had a great battle in Pentland Firth, in which Kalf Arnason was with Earl Thorfin. So says Bjarne Gullbrarskald: –
Thy cutters, dashing through the tide, Brought aid to Earl Thorfin's side, Fin's son-in-law, and people say Thy aid made Bruse's son give way. Kalf, thou art fond of warlike toil, Gay in the strife and bloody broil; But here 'twas hate made thee contend Against Earl Ragnvald, the king's friend.
King Magnus ruled then both over Denmark and Norway; and when he had got possession of the Danish dominions he sent ambassadors over to England to King Edward, who brought to him King Magnus's letter and seal. And in this letter there stood, along with a salutation from King Magnus, these words: – "Ye must have heard of the agreement which I and Hardaknut made, – that he of us two who survived the other should have all the land and people which the deceased had possessed. Now it has so turned out, as ye have no doubt heard, that I have taken the Danish dominions as my heritage after Hardaknut. But before he departed this life he had England as well as Denmark; therefore I consider myself now, in consequence of my rights by this agreement, to own England also. Now I will therefore that thou deliver to me the kingdom; otherwise I will seek to take it by arms, both from Denmark and Norway; and let him rule the land to whom fate gives the victory."
Now when King Edward had read this letter, he replied thus: "It is known to all men in this country that King Ethelred, my father, was udal-born to this kingdom, both after the old and new law of inheritance. We were four sons after him; and when he by death left the throne my brother Edmund took the government and kingdom; for he was the oldest of us brothers, and I was well satisfied that it was so. And after him my stepfather, Canute the Great, took the kingdom, and as long as he lived there was no access to it. After him my brother Harald was king as long as he lived; and after him my brother Hardaknut took the kingdoms both of Denmark and England; for he thought that a just brotherly division that he should have both England and Denmark, and that I should have no kingdom at all. Now he died, and then it was the resolution of all the people of the country to take me for king here in England. So long as I had no kingly title I served only superiors in all respects, like those who had no claims by birth to land or kingdom. Now, however, I have received the kingly title, and am consecrated king. I have established my royal dignity and authority, as my father before me; and while I live I will not renounce my title. If King Magnus come here with an army, I will gather no army against him; but he shall only get the opportunity of taking England when he has taken my life. Tell him these words of mine." The ambassadors went back to King Magnus, and told him the answer to their message. King Magnus reflected a while, and answered thus: "I think it wisest, and will succeed best, to let King Edward have his kingdom in peace for me, and that I keep the kingdoms God has put into my hands."Top of page